This study maps and analyses current and future threats from online misinformation, alongside currently adopted socio-technical and legal approaches. The challenges of evaluating their effectiveness and practical adoption are also discussed. Drawing on and complementing existing literature, the study summarises and analyses the findings of relevant journalistic and scientific studies and policy reports in relation to detecting, containing and countering online disinformation and propaganda campaigns. It traces recent developments and trends and identifies significant new or emerging challenges. It also addresses potential policy implications for the EU of current socio-technical solutions.
This study was written by Alexandre Alaphilippe, Alexis Gizikis and Clara Hanot of EU DisinfoLab, and Kalina Bontcheva of The University of Sheffield, at the request of the Panel for the Future of Science and Technology (STOA). It has been financed under the European Science-Media Hub (ESMH) budget and managed by the Scientific Foresight Unit within the Directorate-General for Parliamentary Research Services (EPRS) of the Secretariat of the European Parliament.